Sponsored program funding data serve as important indications of faculty, staff, and student scholarly activity. Both award and expenditure data are provided in this section. Research expenditure data – the amount of funding expended for the purpose of research – is the gold standard for measurement of research activity in higher education. It indicates the amount of external funding spent by faculty and staff to conduct research; hence, it accurately reflects the productivity of funded researchers. Sponsored program expenditure data reflects activity on all types of sponsored program projects, including those dedicated to instruction or public service, as well as research. Hence, research expenditures are a subset of total sponsored program expenditures.